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05 Oct
2017 Guide to Virginia Wind and Solar Policy
Thursday, October 5, 2017
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Ivy Main
Adoption Year : 2017
An overview of Virginia's Wind and Solar Policy.
21 Sep
Solar Energy in Michigan: The Economic Impact of Distributed Generation on Non-solar Customers
Thursday, September 21, 2017
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Stanley "Skip" Pruss, Dr. Laura Sherman
Adoption Year : 2017
On April 20, 2017, Michigan’s new Clean and Renewable Energy and Energy Waste Reduction Act and revisions to Michigan’s general public utilities act (Public Acts 341 and 342 of 2016) took effect. Among other things, the new laws require the Michigan Public Service Commission (“MPSC” or “Commission”) to “conduct a study on an appropriate tariff reflecting the equitable cost of service for utility revenue requirements for customers who participate in a net metering program or distributed generation program” within one year. This new statutory
21 Mar
Retail Rate Impacts of Distributed Solar-Focus on New England
Tuesday, March 21, 2017
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Policy Positions    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Nicholas Martin and Karl Rabago
Adoption Year : 2017
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) recently issued a study entitled “Putting the Potential Rate Impacts of Distributed Solar into Context,” authored by Galen Barbose. The LBNL study estimates the potential rate impact of distributed solar on national average retail electricity prices, and importantly, compares that impact to the potential impact of other rate drivers such as natural gas prices, renewable portfolio standards, and utility capital expenditures.1 This brief applies a similar style analysis as used by LBNL to regional
17 Nov
Is Bigger Best in Renewable Energy
Thursday, November 17, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    Technology    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : John Farrell, Institute for Local Self-Reliance
Adoption Year : 2016
Conventional wisdom suggests the biggest wind and solar power plants will be cheapest, but where they deliver power, and who will own them, matters more.
21 Oct
Is Bigger Best in Renewable Energy?
Friday, October 21, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : John Farrell
Adoption Year : 2016
Despite the evidence about limits to scale economies, the conventional wisdom that bigger is better has persisted into the renewable energy power industry. It’s particularly ironic, since the costly ever-bigger power plants of the 1970s led Congress to pass the 1978 Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), the federal law that opened the door to renewable energy alternatives to conventional power plants. This lesson seems lost on many observers of the renewable energy industry.
18 Oct
RIP FITS: As U.S. Feed-in Tariffs Fade, Adopting Elements Could Spur Solar Growth
Tuesday, October 18, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Herman K. Trabish
Adoption Year : 2016
This short article discusses the evolution of Feedin Tariffs and Net Metering. It also suggests how elements of both incentive schemes could help policymakers settle on a more sustainable, long term solar support.
07 Oct
Beyond the Meter: Addressing the Locational Valuation Challenge for Distributed Energy Resources
Friday, October 7, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Smart Electric Power Alliance in partnership with Nexant
Adoption Year : 2016
This report, “Addressing the Locational Valuation Challenge for Distributed Energy Resources,” the second in the Beyond the Meter series, focuses on evaluating distributed energy resources (DERs) as grid assets. Several utility-led projects now underway are testing DERs—or as some call them, “non-wires alternatives”—as an option preferable to investments in traditional assets for capacity expansion, upgrade, or renewal. Many thought leaders and industry experts have mapped the stream of potential benefits and provided the initial foundationa
21 Sep
Achieving very high PV penetration – The need for an effective electricity remuneration framework and a central role for grid operators
Wednesday, September 21, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    Policy Positions    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Richard Perez, Karl R. Rábago (Rabago), Mike Trahan, Lyle Rawlings, Ben Norris, Tom Hoff, Morgan Putnam, Marc Perez
Adoption Year : 2016
This article proposes that optimally deployed solutions to the intermittency introduced by high penetration solar – e. g., electrical storage, optimized curtailment and demand response – could affordably transform solar power generation into the firm power delivery system modern energy economies require, thereby enabling very high solar penetration and the displacement of conventional power generation. The optimal deployment of these high-penetration-enabling solutions imply the existence of a healthy power grid, and therefore imply a central r
12 Sep
Incentivizing Solar Energy: An In-Depth Analysis of U.S. Solar Incentives
Monday, September 12, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Opposition Item    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Consumer Energy Alliance, Report prepared by: Borlick Associates, LLC
Adoption Year : 2016
From the Executive Summary: To stimulate renewable energy development, governments at the local, state and federal level have provided a myriad of incentives for residential electricity customers who install solar panels on their roofs, some of which overlap. The combined effect of these incentives is quite substantial – particularly in light of the dramatic decline in the cost of solar panels that has recently occurred. This report aims to inform policymakers by quantifying the total incentives as a percentage of the installed cost of a ty
11 Aug
An Assessment of Renewable Electric Generating Technologies for Florida
Thursday, August 11, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    Technology    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Florida Public Service Commission, Department of Environmental Protection
Adoption Year : 2003
The report discusses current policies and the limitations of such policies to the development of new renewable resources, contains descriptions of specific renewable technologies, provides estimated costs, describes likely environmental attributes of these technologies, and offers summaries of various options and mechanisms that other states have adopted to encourage renewables.
11 Aug
Technical Potential for Local Distributed Photovoltaics in California
Thursday, August 11, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3)
Adoption Year : 2012
We are pleased to announce the release of a Consultant Report on the technical potential, costs, and benefits of local distributed solar photovoltaics (PV) in California. Specifically, CPUC staff requested this consultant report to better understand and to compare the costs and benefits of the various distributed solar PV market segments, including residential rooftop, commercial rooftop, small ground-mount, and larger ground-mount (up to 20 megawatts). The methodology and analysis in this report will be used to inform the broader renewable res
11 Aug
Introduction to the California Net Energy Metering Ratepayer Impacts Evaluation
Thursday, August 11, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Ehren Seybert, Gabe Petlin, Katie Wu, Melicia Charles - California Public Utilities Commission
Adoption Year : 2013
NEM is an electricity tariff billing mechanism designed to facilitate the installation of renewable customer distributed generation (DG). Under NEM tariffs, customers receive a bill credit for generation that is exported to the electric grid during times when it is not serving onsite load. Bill credits for the excess generation are applied to a customer’s bill at the same retail rate (including generation, distribution, and transmission components) that the customer would have paid for energy consumption, according to their otherwise applicable
11 Aug
Evaluation of Net Metering in Vermont Conducted Pursuant to Act 99 of 2014
Thursday, August 11, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Public Service Department
Adoption Year : 2014
Act 99 of the 2014 Vermont legislative session directed the Public Service Department (Department) to complete an evaluation of net metering in Vermont and file the resulting report with the Public Service Board. This report to the Public Service Board (Board) addresses the legislative request. It builds directly from the report completed by the Department in January 2013 pursuant to Act 125 of the 2012 legislative session, updating assumptions and methodology as appropriate and described herein. Aspects of the methodology and approach that are
09 Aug
DG Solar PV and TPO, A Situational Analysis
Tuesday, August 9, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Policy Positions    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Rogier Fentener Van Vlissingen
Adoption Year : 2016
"Amid the recent melt-down of several Third Party Owned Solar PV providers, it is time to address both the deceptive marketing of this industry at the retail/consumer level and at the investor level. Based on my observations of the industry, along with analysis and writing in this area in recent years, mostly on blogs and financial sites like Seeking Alpha as well as some some Environmental/Energy websites, I have come to the conclusion that the principal impediment in this area is consumer confusion."
04 Aug
Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California
Thursday, August 4, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Andrew Mills, Ryan Wiser - Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Adoption Year : 2012
We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with
04 Aug
Energy and Capacity Valuation of  Photovoltaic Power Generation in New York
Thursday, August 4, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Richard Perez, Thomas E. Hoff - Clean Power Research
Adoption Year : 2008
This initial investigation in the value of photovoltaic (PV) power generation for New York focuses on the value to utilities. Specifically, the report asks whether PV netmetering constitutes a loss to the utilities which would negatively affect their rate payers. The value of customer-sited PV generation to a utility includes generation-level energy and capacity, as well as environmental compliance benefits, fuel price hedge protection, and location specific-transmission and distribution (T&D) and loss savings benefits.
04 Aug
Evaluation of Hawaii’s Renewable Energy Policy and Procurement
Thursday, August 4, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3)
Adoption Year : 2014
The State of Hawaii has ambitious goals for renewable energy development with a target of 40% of the State’s electricity coming from renewable generation by 2030. Under a National Association of Regulatory Commissioners (NARUC) funded grant, Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3) was retained by the Hawaii Public Utilities Commission (PUC) to develop a methodology and compare the economics of different renewable generation procurement options.
04 Aug
California Solar Initiative Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation
Thursday, August 4, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3)
Adoption Year : 2011
The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) retained Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3) to perform a cost-effectiveness evaluation of the California Solar Initiative (CSI) in accordance with the CSI Program Evaluation Plan. This evaluation of the CSI program is one component of a larger contract award and analysis plan that also includes cost-effectiveness evaluation of Net Energy Metering (NEM), completed by E3 in January 2010, and a comparative distributed generation (DG) analysis, to be completed by E3 in 2011.
04 Aug
Quantifying the Benefits of Solar Power for California
Thursday, August 4, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Ed Smeloff
Adoption Year : 2005
This paper provides a quantitative analysis of key benefits of solar energy for California based on the best available data. It is not intended to be a comprehensive analysis of all of the benefits of solar power, many of which are difficult to quantify. However, it does document the value of solar energy to reduce peak demand for electricity, lessen the consumption of natural gas in power plants, avoid environmental damage from power plant emissions, help the electric grid operate more efficiently by reducing line losses and save investment ca
04 Aug
The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California
Thursday, August 4, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Naïm (Naim) Darghouth, Galen Barbose, Ryan Wiser - Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Adoption Year : 2010
Though net metering has played an important role in jump-starting the PV market in the U.S., challenges to net metering policies have emerged in a number of states and contexts, and alternative compensation methods are under consideration. Moreover, one inherent feature of net metering is that the value of the utility bill savings it provides to customers with PV depends heavily on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate, as well as on the characteristics of the customer and PV system. Consequently, the bill-savings value of net
04 Aug
2013 Updated Solar PV Value Report
Thursday, August 4, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : SAIC
Adoption Year : 2013
This Report is presented in three sections. Section 1 describes the objectives of the 2013 Updated Solar PV Value Report, summarizes key assumptions, and provides an overview of the foundational elements of the 2009 Study (Distributed Renewable Energy Operating Impacts and Valuation Study). Section 2 presents the methodologies used in the analysis of the projected solar PV systems and underlying support for the updated solar PV value assessment which is summarized in Section 3.
10 May
Value of Solar - Tariff Pilot Design Elements
Tuesday, May 10, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2016
Paper details the key design elements of a VOS tariff. A “value of solar tariff” operates like a net metering tariff in providing customers with a monthly bill credit for the act of generating electricity from a private solar PV system. Unlike traditional net metering, however, the value of the solar generation credit is calculated based on the levelized present value of the sum of the life-cycle costs and benefits of energy produced by the solar PV system, instead of a credit based on the customer’s otherwise applicable tariffed rate for co
10 May
Value of Solar - Study Design Elements
Tuesday, May 10, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2016
A more detailed introduction to Value of Solar studies than the one page summary: what they are, key design elements, and their applications. Includes a data table with an illustrative example of a how results might be structured.
10 May
How to Assess the True Value of Solar
Tuesday, May 10, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2016
Brief introduction to Value of Solar studies: what they are, key design elements, and their applications. Includes a data table with an illustrative example of a how results might be structured.
05 May
A Ratepayer Focused Strategy for Distributed Solar in Maine
Thursday, May 5, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Strategen Consulting
Adoption Year : 2015
This white paper offers a framework for sustainable growth in Maine’s distributed solar energy sector that maximizes and fairly allocates benefits for all ratepayers. This approach builds on the Public Utilities Commission’s recent “value of solar” study as well as lessons learned from other states. The policy proposed is specifically tailored to the state of Maine and offers innovative program design features intended to capitalize on the latest technological advances in the solar industry. While designed to present a coherent and holistic pol
13 Apr
Value of the Grid to DG Customers
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Lisa Wood, IEE
Adoption Year : 2013
Edison Foundation-sponsored issue brief on the benefits that residential DG customers experience from being connected to the grid, and use those benefits to justify charging them for those services, regardless of the benefits provided by DG to the grid
13 Apr
The Integrated Grid - Realizing the Full Value of Central and Distributed Energy Resources
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
Adoption Year : 2014
Report stating that the traditional grid needs to expand to include DG and consumer participation in energy production. Mentions the success of feed-in tariffs internationally, and discusses improving the valuation of DER
08 Apr
The Future of Solar Energy
Friday, April 8, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Opposition Item    Technology    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Energy Initiative - Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Adoption Year : 2015
This study examines the current state of U.S. solar electricity generation, the several technological approaches that have been and could be followed to convert sunlight to electricity, and the market and policy environments the solar industry has faced. Our objective is to assess solar energy’s current and potential competitive position and to identify changes in U.S. government policies that could more efficiently and effectively support the industry’s robust, long-term growth.
08 Apr
Pathway to a 21st Century Electric Utility
Friday, April 8, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Peter Kind, Energy Infrastructure Advocates LLC
Adoption Year : 2015
Utilities do an excellent job of? what they are mandated to do— provide safe, reliable and affordable energy. Utilities are not going away, because we require them to operate the electric grid, so why not expand the scope of their mandate to manage an environment in which consumers use energy and electricity more efficiently to create customer value and optimize the electricity system for the benefit of all? In this environment, utilities will be incented to maximize customer and system value, as opposed to simply building infrastructure. Gi
08 Apr
Appraising into the Sun: Six-State Solar Home Paired-Sale Analysis
Friday, April 8, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Sandra Adomatis and Ben Hoen
Adoption Year : 2016
Abstract: Although residential solar photo-voltaic (PV) installations have proliferated, PV systems on some U.S. homes still receive no value during an appraisal because comparable home sales are lacking. To value residential PV, some previous studies have employed paired-sales appraisal methods to analyze large samples. Our first-of-its-kind study connects the two approaches. It uses appraisal methods to evaluate sale price premiums for owned PV systems on single-unit detached houses that were also evaluated in a large statistical study. Indep
04 Apr
50 States of Solar - 2015 Policy Review - Q4 Quarterly Report
Monday, April 4, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center, Meister Consultants Group
Adoption Year : 2015
The purpose of this report is to provide state lawmakers and regulators, electric utilities, the solar industry, and other energy stakeholders with timely, accurate, and unbiased updates on how states are choosing to study, adopt, implement, amend, or discontinue policies associated with distributed solar photovoltaics (PV). This report catalogues proposed and enacted legislative, regulatory policy, and rate design changes affecting the value proposition of distributed solar PV during the most recent quarter, with an emphasis on the residential
31 Mar
MIT: Solar should ditch net metering, fight for federal tax incentives
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Opposition Item    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Herman K. Trabish at Utility Dive
Adoption Year : 2015
This article briefly mentions a part of the MIT report on the future of solar energy and gives its insight.  The article states seemingly supports the idea of thin-film technologies.  It states they could be made from earth-abundant materials to produce higher-efficiency, lower cost, lighter-weight modules to help overcome current barriers such as high balance of system costs.
31 Mar
Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency
Adoption Year : 2008
This paper reviews the issues and approaches involved in considering and adopting cost-effectiveness tests for energy efficiency, including discussing each perspective represented by the five standard cost-effectiveness tests and clarifying key terms.
31 Mar
Impact of Different Economic Performance Metrics on the Perceived Value of Solar Photovoltaics
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Easan Drury, Paul Denholm, Robert Margolis (NREL)
Adoption Year : 2011
In this analysis, authors characterize PV economic performance for three ownership types: residential customers who purchase their own PV systems, commercial customers (for-profit companies) who purchase their own PV systems, and residential and commercial customers who lease PV equipment or buy PV electricity from a third-party company. They characterize the differences in PV economics for each customer based on the different tax implications of ownership.
31 Mar
Revisiting the Long-Term Hedge Value of Wind Power in an Era of Low Natural Gas Prices
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Mark Bolinger (LBNL)
Adoption Year : 2013
This article proceeds as follows. Section 2 makes the case for valuing wind power as a long-term natural gas price hedge by contrasting the characteristics of a large sample of wind power purchase agreements (“PPAs”) to the shortcomings of conventional gas price hedging instruments like futures and options contracts. Although these conventional hedging instruments can be used effectively to hedge gas price risk in the near-term, they come up short when one tries to use them to lock in prices over longer terms – e.g., over the average 20-year du
31 Mar
Net Metering: An issue paper of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Opposition Item    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : National Rural Electric Cooperative Association
Adoption Year : 2012
This white paper answers several questions, such as: What is net metering? Why do so many states have net metering rules? Why are utilities concerned about net metering? What is aggregated net metering, community net metering? How can we gain the benefits of net metering without unfair cost shifting?
31 Mar
Quantifying the Cost of High Photovoltaic Penetration
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Richard Perez, Thomas E. Hoff, Marc Perez
Adoption Year : 2010
This paper presents a methodology to quantify the cost of energy storage required to provide firm capacity on a utility power grid using a combination of energy produced by a specific generation source and storage.
31 Mar
Power System Planning: Emerging Practices Suitable for Evaluating the Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaics
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Technology    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : J. Bebic at GE Global Research
Adoption Year : 2008
This study explores the impact of high-penetration renewable generation on electric power system planning methodologies to address the technical and analytical challenges to the adoption of renewable distributed electric generation.  In particular, the study focuses on integration-related issues at the distribution level for PV technology since addressing integration issues is necessary for the long-term viability of distributed PV industry.
31 Mar
Photovoltaic Capacity Valuation Methods
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Tom Hoff, Richard Perez, JP Ross, Mike Taylor
Adoption Year : 2008
Paper giving a background on the PV capacity methods and issues related to them, as well as a summary of the related workshop at the Solar Power 2007 conference.
31 Mar
Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : R. Margolis and J. Zuboy (NREL)
Adoption Year : 2006
Paper reviewing the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that could be addressed by the DOE.
31 Mar
Net Metering Policy Development in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Elizabeth Doris, Sarah Busche, and Stephen Hockett
Adoption Year : 2009
This study was conducted to compare Minnesota’s policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions’ net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states. The report finds that increasing the cap may move the state toward its goal of providing the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, including a larger ave
31 Mar
Moving Towards a More Comprehensive Framework to Evaluate Distributed Photovoltaics
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Thomas E. Hoff (Clean Power Research) and Robert M. Margolis (NREL)
Adoption Year : 2005
There is a growing interest in customer-owned generation with a particular interest in photovoltaic (PV) systems. This has resulted in a growing number of analytical studies aimed at determining their value. Two difficulties that these studies have encountered are how to select the proper evaluation perspective and which benefits and costs to include in the analysis. This paper presents a framework to perform a more comprehensive analysis. It frames the established Standard Practice Tests used for demand side management cost effectiveness e
31 Mar
Interstate Renewable Energy Council: Unlocking DG Value: A PURPRA-Based Approach to State Policy Design
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Keyes, Fox & Wiedman LLP
Adoption Year : 2013
This paper explores the benefits that could be quantified and incorporated into the development of PURPA-based avoided cost rates, to more accurately value the energy contribution of distributed facilities that serve local load. A comprehensive PURPA-based approach to DG policy design would incorporate many as-yet-unrecognized benefits of exports to the distribution system, including: line-loss avoidance; the ability to make smaller capacity additions that more closely follow incremental load changes; the deferral or avoidance of utility capita
31 Mar
Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short-Term Variability of Solar Power
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Technology    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Andrew Mills and Ryan Wiser - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
Adoption Year : 2010
Study that analyzes wind and solar data to compare vulnerability of sites and variability of generation.
31 Mar
Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Tax Issues    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : National Academy of Sciences
Adoption Year : 2010
The purpose of this study was to define and evaluate external effects of energy production, use, and consumption, which refer to costs and benefits not taken into account in making decisions (such as the siting of a power plant) or not reflected in market prices (for example, the price of gasoline at the pump). Under such conditions, the actions that follow might be suboptimal—in the sense that the full social costs of the actions are not recognized—resulting in a loss of social welfare. When market failures like these occur, there is a case fo
31 Mar
Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Paul R. Epstein, Jonathan J. Buonocore, Kevin Eckerle, Michael Hendryx, Benjamin M. Stout III, Richard Heinberg, Richard W. Clapp, Beverly May, Nancy L. Reinhart, Melissa M. Ahern, Samir K. Doshi, and Leslie Glustrom
Adoption Year : 2011
Each stage in the life cycle of coal—extraction, transport, processing, and combustion—generates a waste stream and carries multiple hazards for health and the environment. These costs are external to the coal industry and are thus often considered “externalities.” We estimate that the life cycle effects of coal and the waste stream generated are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half of a trillion dollars annually. Many of these so-called externalities are, moreover, cumulative. Accounting for the damages conservatively doubles to tr
31 Mar
Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Travis Lowder, Michael Mendelsohn, Bethany Speer, and Roger Hill
Adoption Year : 2013
As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become increasingly important to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This study discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The study also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto th
30 Mar
Austin Energy Residential Rate Description
Wednesday, March 30, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Austin Energy
Adoption Year : 2012
Explains the residential rate options for customers who receive electric service, including a section on those who operate an interconnected on-site solar PV system
30 Mar
Assessing Minnesota's Solar Resource: Revenue Implications of Solar PV System Orientation and Rate Structure
Wednesday, March 30, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    Technology    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Solar Cities Minneapolis Saint Paul
Adoption Year : 2011
This paper examines the revenue implications of various system orientations and rate structures for commercial-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems co-located with a building load.  This study uses several modeling tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to model PV system revenue for a single system in Minnesota modeled with six different orientations and with each orientation exposed to five different rate structures. The rate structures examined include several rates currently available from the utility territory
30 Mar
An Evaluation of Solar Valuation Methods Used in Utility Planning and Procurement Processes
Wednesday, March 30, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Andrew Mills and Ryan Wiser (Berkeley Lab)
Adoption Year : 2012
This report reviews a recent sample of U.S. load-serving entity (LSE) planning studies and procurement processes to identify how current practices reflect the drivers of solar’s economic value. In particular, it analyzes the LSE’s treatment of the capacity value, energy value, and integration costs of solar energy; the transmission and distribution system, and options that might mitigate solar variability and uncertainty; the methods LSEs use to design candidate portfolios of resources for evaluation within the studies; and the approaches LSEs
30 Mar
An Effective Load Carrying Capability Analysis for Estimating the Capacity Value of Solar Generation Resources on the Public Service Company of Colorado System
Wednesday, March 30, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Xcel Energy Services, Inc.
Adoption Year : 2009
Analysis evaluating the effective load carrying capacity for solar resources in the state of Colorado.
30 Mar
A Generalized Approach to Assessing the Rate Impacts of Net Energy Metering
Wednesday, March 30, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    
State : Pennsylvania    
Author : Jason B. Keyes, Joseph F. Wiedman (Interstate Renewable Energy Council)
Adoption Year : 2012
Report providing a methodology by which to analyze the potential rate impacts of net energy metering (NEM), a generalized approach for any state or utility to use to analyze the potential rate impact of NEM in its area.