Search By Adoption Year (15)

Please click on the year you would like to explore further

Search Results for

11 Aug
Evaluation of Net Metering in Vermont Conducted Pursuant to Act 99 of 2014
Thursday, August 11, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Vermont    
Author : Public Service Department
Adoption Year : 2014
Act 99 of the 2014 Vermont legislative session directed the Public Service Department (Department) to complete an evaluation of net metering in Vermont and file the resulting report with the Public Service Board. This report to the Public Service Board (Board) addresses the legislative request. It builds directly from the report completed by the Department in January 2013 pursuant to Act 125 of the 2012 legislative session, updating assumptions and methodology as appropriate and described herein. Aspects of the methodology and approach that are
04 Aug
Evaluation of Hawaii’s Renewable Energy Policy and Procurement
Thursday, August 4, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Hawaii    
Author : Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3)
Adoption Year : 2014
The State of Hawaii has ambitious goals for renewable energy development with a target of 40% of the State’s electricity coming from renewable generation by 2030. Under a National Association of Regulatory Commissioners (NARUC) funded grant, Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3) was retained by the Hawaii Public Utilities Commission (PUC) to develop a methodology and compare the economics of different renewable generation procurement options.
08 May
Response Testimony of Karl R. Rabago In the Matter of: Biennial Determination of Avoided Cost Rates for Electric Utility Purchases from Qualifying Facilities - June 2, 2014
Sunday, May 8, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : North Carolina    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
North Carolina Utilities Commission Docket No. E-100, Sub 140. In its order initiating this proceeding, "In the Matter of: Biennial Determination of Avoided Cost Rates for Electric Utility Purchases from Qualifying Facilities – 2014," the North Carolina Utilities Commission ("the Commission") signaled its intention to consider “changes to the methodology used to calculate avoided cost payments, particularly capacity payments,” including “whether the methodologies historically relied upon by the Commission to determine avoided cost capture the f
08 May
Rebuttal Testimony of Karl R. Rábago (Rabago) In the Matter of: Biennial Determination of Avoided Cost Rates for Electric Utility Purchases from Qualifying Facilities - 2014
Sunday, May 8, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : New York    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
North Carolina Public Utilities Commission Docket No. E-100, Sub 140. The rebuttal testimony responds to certain points in the testimony filed by several other parties on May 30, 2014. Some points include: testimony from Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress witness Kendal C. Bowman regarding costs included in avoided cost calculations, testimony of Duke witnesses Bowman, Snider, and Makovich relating to value of solar analysis, and testimony of Public Staff witness Dr. Richard E. Brown relating to the effective load carrying capacity
08 May
Direct Testimony of Karl R. Rabago in the matter of: Biennial Determination of Avoided Cost Rates for Electric Utility Purchases from Qualifying Facilities -- 2014
Sunday, May 8, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : North Carolina    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
North Carolina Utilities Commission Docket No. E-100, Sub 140. Direct Testimony on behalf of Southern Alliance for Clean Energy before the North Carolina Utilities Commission. The testimony recommends a full avoided cost analysis for solar technology, including utility-scale and distributed solar technology. This will reveal not only the full costs that can be avoided by solar resources, but demonstrate a comprehensive methodology suitable for assessing all manner of non-utility generation and resources.
08 May
Direct Testimony of Karl R. Rabago on behalf of Environmental Respondents In re: Application of Appalachian Power Company for a 2014 Biennial Review of the Rates, Terms, and Conditions for the Provision of Generation, Distribution, and Transmission Services Pursuant to § 56-585.1 A of the Code of Virginia
Sunday, May 8, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Tax Issues    
State : Virginia    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
Virginia State Corporation Commission Case No. PUE-2014-00026. This testimony explains why the Appalachian Power Company's ("the Company") proposed standby charge would constitute an unjust, unreasonable, and improper discriminatory rate charged on solar customer-generators. The testimony states the proposed charge is inadequately supported and fails to meet the requirements of Virginia Code § 56-594 F. Under this statute, the Company must prove that its proposed charge would recover “only the portion of the supplier’s infrastructure costs that
08 May
Direct Testimony of Natalie A. Mims and Karl R. Rabago on Behalf of Southern Alliance for Clean Energy before the Florida Public Service Commission
Sunday, May 8, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Florida    
Author : Natalie A. Mims
Adoption Year : 2014
Florida Public Service Commission Docket No. 130199-EI thru 130199-EI. This testimony presents the Commission with an evaluation of Florida Power and Lighting (“FPL”), Duke Energy Florida (“DEF”), Gulf Power Company (“GPC”) and TECO’s (collectively, the “Utilities”) Petition for Approval of Numeric Conservation Goals. Specifically, the testimony: 1. discusses why it is inappropriate and against precedent and legislative intent to use the Ratepayer Impact Measurement (“RIM”) test scores to set energy efficiency goals in Florida; 2. reviews the r
08 May
Nevada Net Energy Metering Impacts Evaluation
Sunday, May 8, 2016
Resource Type : VOS Study or Benefit Cost Analysis
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Nevada    
Author : Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc.
Adoption Year : 2014
Nevada Public Utilities Commission Docket No. 13-07010. This study was commissioned by the Public Utilities Commission of Nevada in response to Nevada Assembly Bill (AB) 428 to forecast the costs and benfits of renewable generation systems that qualify for the state’s net energy metering (NEM) program. Energy + Environmental Economics completed the study under direction of the PUCN and with input from a stakeholder advisory group composed of experts from the solar industry, ratepayer advocates, and electric utility representatives. This work wa
06 May
Direct Testimony of Karl R. Rabago In re: Virginia Electric and Power Company's Integrated Resource Plan filing pursuant to Code of Virginia
Friday, May 6, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Virginia    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
Virginia State Corporation Commission Case No. PUE-2013-00088. Testimony on behalf of Chesapeake Climate Action Network, Appalachian Voices, and the Virginia Chapter of the Sierra Club. The testimony evaluates the solar photovoltaic generation aspect of the Virginia Electric and Power Company's ("the Company") Integrated Resource Plan ("IRP.") The author's overall finding is that the Company's approach to solar energy is incomplete, inconsistent, and inaccurate. Given specific deficiencies explained in the testimony, the Company's approach to s
06 May
Direct Testimony of Karl R. Rábago (Rabago) for RENEW Wisconsin and Environmental Law and Policy Center
Friday, May 6, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Net Energy Metering    
State : Wisconsin    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
Wisc Public Service Commission Docket 6690-UR-123. The purpose of this testimony is to demonstrate many significant errors underpinning the wholesale attack by Wisconsin Electric Power Company (the “Company”) on customer generators. The testimony points out the deficiencies in and adverse consequences of the proposals by the Company to: 1. raise fixed customer “facilities” charges; 2. impose standby/demand charges on distributed generators; 3. impose a new requirement for monthly netting on net metering customers; 4. set a de facto avoided cost
06 May
Comments of Karl R. Rábago (Rabago) In re: Distributed Generation before Iowa Utilities Board
Friday, May 6, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Iowa    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
Iowa Utilities Board Docket No. NOI-2014-0001. The comments assert the Louisiana Public Service Commission and Staff abate any action to adjust the benefits and burdens under Louisiana's net metering rule unless and until competent objective evidence is developed regarding the benefits and costs associated with distributed solar energy generation. The testimony makes recommendations based on the following: 1. the existing Louisiana Net Metering Rule is reasonable and consistent with the practice in the majority of U.S. jurisdictions; 2. solar c
06 May
Sierra Club's Comments on Kentucky Power Company's Integrated Resource Planning Report, Including Technical Comments of Karl R. Rabago (Exhibit B) on Solar Valuation
Friday, May 6, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Kentucky    
Author : Sierra Club
Adoption Year : 2014
Kentucky Public Service Commission Case No. 2013-00475. Kentucky Power Company's ("KPC") Integrated Resource Planning Report ("IRP") is a plan to diversify its energy portfolio. However, Sierra Club's comments state KPC failed to evaluate a range of potential resource plans. The IRP does not incorporate the thorough and reasonable planning needed to achieve a least cost and least risk energy future. Sierra Club suggests the Public Service Commission Staff find the IRP to be inadequate and require KPC to address and correct the above errors in t
06 May
State of North Carolina Utilities Commission Raleigh -- Order Setting Avoided Cost Input Parameters
Friday, May 6, 2016
Resource Type : Legislation, Tariff, or Rule
Topic : Opposition Item    Tax Issues    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : North Carolina    
Author : North Carolina Utilities Commission
Adoption Year : 2014
North Carolina Utilities Commission Docket No. E-100, Sub 140. An Order, including facts, evidence, and discussion, by the North Carolina Utilities Commission establishing avoided cost rates and tariffs and mandating specific methods to calculate a number of rates, either incorporating or not incorporating certain costs and benefits.
06 May
Summary of Testimony on Behalf of the North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association
Friday, May 6, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : North Carolina    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
North Carolina Utilities Commission Docket No. E-100, Sub 140. Summary of Karl R. Rabago's testimony to propose the North Carolina Utilities Commission Commission address inadequacies the utilities' avoided cost proposals by implementing a short-term and a longer-term approach that will better ensure that "full," non-discriminatory avoided cost rates are offered to qualifying solar electric facilities in both the short-term and the longer-term.
06 May
Surrebuttal Testimony of Karl R. Rabago for RENEW Wisconsin and Environmental Law & Policy Center
Friday, May 6, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Wisconsin    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
Wisconsin Public Service Commission Docket No. 05-UR-107. Testimony for RENEW Wisconsin and Environmental Law & Policy Center before the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin re: Joint Application of Wisconsin Electric Power Company and Wisconsin Gas LLC to Conduct a Biennial Review of Costs and Rates for Test Year 2015. This surrebutal points out the flawed assumption in the witness' testimony and rebuttal. The flaw is that the broad and uncharacterized interests of "economic efficiency" will be advanced by aligning rate design with average c
06 May
Testimony of Karl R. Rabago on Behalf of the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy
Friday, May 6, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Florida    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
Florida Public Service Commission Docket No. 130199-EI thru 130199-EI. The purpose of the testimony is to make two points regarding the solar photovoltaic ("solar PV") pilot programs administered by Florida Power & Light Company, Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Tampa Electric Company, and Gulf Power Company ("the Companies.") First, the Companies should substantially revise and continue their solar PV programs. Second, the Companies' solar programs should be revised to improve valuation techniques for solar PV in order to more accurately characteriz
06 May
Comments Before the Iowa Utilities Board
Friday, May 6, 2016
Resource Type : Testimony
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Tax Issues    
State : Iowa    
Author : Environmental Law & Policy Center, Iowa Environmental Council, Sierra Club, Iowa Solar Energy Trade Association, Solar Energy Industries Association, The Vote Solar Initiative, and Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. (IREC) Expert Report by Karl R. Rábago (Rabago).
Adoption Year : 2014
Iowa Utilities Board Docket No. NOI-2014-0001. The comments address Iowa's potential and untapped distributed generation market. They advocate that Iowa proactively catalyze its distributed generation market to prevent losing its distributed generation benefits to other states. The comments specifically address five issues relating to distributed generation in Iowa: 1. Iowa policy makers must take steps to catalyze the distributed generation market; 2. preserve, expand, and standardize Iowa's existing net metering policy to include all utilitie
06 May
Net Metering in Mississippi - Costs, Benefits, and Policy Considerations
Friday, May 6, 2016
Resource Type : VOS Study or Benefit Cost Analysis
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Mississippi    
Author : Synapse Energy Economics, Inc.
Adoption Year : 2014
Mississippi Public Service Commission Docket No. 2011-AD-2. Study prepared for the Public Service Commission of Mississippi on the potential implementation of net metering and interconnection policies in the state, specifically focusing on rooftop solar. Discusses a VOS Tariff on page 11
05 May
An Act to Support Solar Energy Development in Maine
Thursday, May 5, 2016
Resource Type : Legislation, Tariff, or Rule
Topic : Policy Positions    
State : Maine    
Author : 126th Maine Legislature
Adoption Year : 2014
This bill creates the Maine Solar Energy Act, which: 1. States specific legislative findings that it is in the public interest to encourage development of solar energy production in the State. This includes finding that solar energy development makes a significant contribution to the general welfare of the citizens of the State and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; 2. Requires the Public Utilities Commission to take specific measures regarding solar energy, including monitoring development and market trends and determining the value of
13 Apr
Why the Net Energy Metering Debate Misses the Point
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : Blog Post
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : @National    
Author : Matt Lehrman, Peter Bronski
Adoption Year : 2014
Article reconciling Net Energy Metering (NEM) and VOS by advocating net metering with unbundled pricing. Also mentions reasons for utility opposition to this.
13 Apr
Value of Solar Approaches Merit Our Support
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : Blog Post
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : @National    
Author : Karl Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
Persuasive piece on the development of VOS, and why it is a viable methodology
13 Apr
The Integrated Grid - Realizing the Full Value of Central and Distributed Energy Resources
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : Research or Whitepaper
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : @National    
Author : Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
Adoption Year : 2014
Report stating that the traditional grid needs to expand to include DG and consumer participation in energy production. Mentions the success of feed-in tariffs internationally, and discusses improving the valuation of DER
13 Apr
State-led work group to review utilities' stake in solar
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : News Article
Topic : Policy Positions    
State : Michigan    
Author : Jay Greene
Adoption Year : 2014
The Michigan PSC decided that the utilities should look into increasing the amount of their generation that comes from solar, exceeding the minimum required of them, and received pushback, especially from DTE. This article discusses the arguments on both sides.
13 Apr
Solar, will you marry me? (for a contract period of 20 years
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : News Article
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Minnesota    
Author : Laurel Passera
Adoption Year : 2014
Article detailing the new VOS methodology released by Minnesota, and their plan to offer utilities the option to replace net metering with a 20-year PPA using the VOS rate
13 Apr
Solar wins: How sunshine will save the planet (really!)
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : Blog Post
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    Technology    
State : @International    
Author : Amelia Urry
Adoption Year : 2014
Article that shows how other countries are taking full advantage of the advances in solar tech, and providing an outlook on what the future of solar for the US could be
13 Apr
Small, distributed generation could change TVA's power pricing model
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : Blog Post
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Tennessee    
Author : Dave Flessner
Adoption Year : 2014
Reviews TVA's move to invest more in DG, especially solar, and the discussions the utility is having with regional stakeholders to ensure that the valuation of these resources is fair to ratepayers
13 Apr
Rooftop solar is growing so fast that electric utilities are now trying to slow it down
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : Blog Post
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : @National    
Author : Brad Plumer
Adoption Year : 2014
Focuses on the conflict between decreasing costs of solar installation and generation and the economic viability of utilities that will have to charge more and more for their services as less and less people consume as much energy from the grid. Mentions VOS as a possible compromise between the solar industry and utilities.
13 Apr
Minn Value of Solar Process Confirms that Net Metering is A Fair Deal
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : Blog Post
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Minnesota    
Author : Rick Gilliam
Adoption Year : 2014
Applauds the forward thinking MN PUC, but expresses reservations about using VOS in place of net metering and not together or as an alternative
13 Apr
Net Metering in Mississippi, Costs, Benefits, and Policy Considerations
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : VOS Study or Benefit Cost Analysis
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Mississippi    
Author : Elizabeth A. Stanton, Joseph Daniel, Tommy Vitolo, Pat Knight, David White, Geoff Keith (Synapse Energy Economics Inc.)
Adoption Year : 2014
At its December 7, 2010 Open Meeting, the Mississippi Public Service Commission voted to open docket 2011-AD-2 in order to investigate establishing and implementing net metering and interconnection standards for Mississippi. Mississippi is one of only a few states that do not have some sort of net metering policy for their distribution companies. In this report we describe a potential net metering policy for Mississippi and the issues surrounding it, focusing on residential and commercial rooftop solar. Two vertically integrated investor-owned
13 Apr
Minn. tries to put a climate value on rooftop solar
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : News Article
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Minnesota    
Author : Peter Behr
Adoption Year : 2014
Even-keeled assessment of arguments for and against the VOS tariff being proposed in Minnesota in January 2014
13 Apr
Minn. Regulators set to decide on solar tariff formula
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : News Article
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    Policy Positions    
State : Minnesota    
Author : Jeffrey Tomich
Adoption Year : 2014
Article covering the impending decision on MN's VOS methodology, talking about the contrast and breadth of opinions
13 Apr
Mike Rothman Commissioner of the Minnesota Department of Commerce Before The Senate Energy Subcommittee
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : Legislation, Tariff, or Rule
Topic : Policy Positions    
State : Minnesota    
Author : Mike Rothman
Adoption Year : 2014
Testimony of MN state official in a Senate Energy Subcommittee hearing explaining the Value of Solar Tariff methodology employed in the state, and its benefits.
13 Apr
In bid against gas, Minnesota regulators say solar can proceed
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : News Article
Topic : Policy Positions    
State : Minnesota    
Author : Dan Haugen
Adoption Year : 2014
Solar project beat out natural gas options in RFP. Article discusses Xcel Energy's reservations and the regulatory climate in MN that made this possible
13 Apr
If 'value of solar' is optional, will Minnesota utilities adopt it?
Wednesday, April 13, 2016
Resource Type : News Article
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Minnesota    
Author : Ken Paulman
Adoption Year : 2014
Outlines the findings of John Farrell's report, indicating that utilities will in fact opt to use the VOS rate, because of the long-term stability, but discusses possible ways they could drive the rate down
09 Apr
EEI and NRDC Closer to Getting It Right On Net Metering
Saturday, April 9, 2016
Resource Type : Blog Post
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : @National    
Author : Peter Kelly-Detwiler
Adoption Year : 2014
Post pointing out that EEI and NRDC's thinking on how to value solar power was almost to the point of VOS while still calling it net metering; features Karl Rábago explaining VOS.
08 Apr
Cost of rooftop solar panels disproportionately impacts the poor
Friday, April 8, 2016
Resource Type : News Article
Topic : Opposition Item    
State : @National    
Author : Antoine Abou-Diwan
Adoption Year : 2014
Points out success of group installing solar for low-income households, but also states that households that don't get solar panels will have to pay for the cost of others' installations
08 Apr
Blacking out America would be a cinch, because there's not enough distributed solar
Friday, April 8, 2016
Resource Type : Blog Post
Topic : Technology    
State : @National    
Author : John Upton
Adoption Year : 2014
Highlights a major cost of having a centralized grid: susceptibility to attack resulting in long-term blackouts
08 Apr
Austin Value of Energy Solar Programs
Friday, April 8, 2016
Resource Type : Presentation or Speech
Topic : Policy Positions    
State : Texas    
Author : Debbie Kimberly, Austin Energy
Adoption Year : 2014
Slide deck showing a recap of cost savings and installation from 2013, VOS implementation and results, and projections and future challenges to be faced in 2014 by Austin Energy and Texas.
08 Apr
As Net Metering Battles Move to Small Markets, Solar Advocates Claim Early Victories
Friday, April 8, 2016
Resource Type : News Article
Topic : Net Energy Metering    
State : @National    Minnesota    
Author : Stephen Lacey
Adoption Year : 2014
Uses example of Minnesota as spot where VOS is winning, and looks to other nationwide battles to show the "chess match" occurring between utilities and solar advocates
08 Apr
America's Great Solar Boom - In 6 Encouraging Charts
Friday, April 8, 2016
Resource Type : Blog Post
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : @National    
Author : Ben Schiller
Adoption Year : 2014
Broad, big picture look at the overall cost viability and ease of access of solar generation to customers across the country. Pulls graphics from a report from the Union of Concerned Scientists
05 Apr
Value of Solar in Utah
Tuesday, April 5, 2016
Resource Type : VOS Study or Benefit Cost Analysis
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Utah    
Author : Benjamin L. Norris, Clean Power Research
Adoption Year : 2014
Utah Clean Energy contracted with Clean Power Research (CPR) in 2013 to estimate the Value of Solar™ (“VOS”) in Utah for the territory served by Rocky Mountain Power (RMP).
31 Mar
Solar Rate Design Options - Customer Solar Electricity
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Tool or Handout
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : @National    
Author : Karl Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
Chart detailing the features of the three different options for solar rate design
31 Mar
Cost-Effectiveness of Net Energy Metering: Building Off to DSM Cost-Effectiveness Practices
Thursday, March 31, 2016
Resource Type : Tool or Handout
Topic : Net Energy Metering    Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : Utah    
Author : Tim Woolf, Synapse Energy Economics
Adoption Year : 2014
PowerPoint providing an overview of the DSM cost-effectiveness tests, how the tests could be applied to NEM, how to account for the impacts on non-participants, and applying the same framework to other NEM policies.
30 Mar
Comparison of Benefits and Costs, Utility Electricity and Customer Solar Electricity
Wednesday, March 30, 2016
Resource Type : Tool or Handout
Topic : Valuation, Analysis, BCA    
State : @National    Colorado    
Author : Karl R. Rábago (Rabago)
Adoption Year : 2014
Chart comparing benefits and costs of utility electricity v. customer solar electricity