The Town of East Hampton acknowledges that, while the extent of future sea level rise and increased storm activity may be uncertain, “it is well established that present sea level is rising and statistically certain that storms will be an ever-present threat to the Town’s coastal zone.” By enacting the coastal flooding and erosion control recommendations of the Town’s Local Waterfront Revitalization Program, Policies 11-17, the Town’s Coastal Overlay District (COD) is intended to improve protection of coastal resources in East Hampton. The COD establishes four overlay zones, adopted from the Town’s Use District Map. Protective measures in the COD include requirements that all structures except coastal structures be located and constructed to minimize property damage and risk to human life. Regulations on erosion control measures vary by zone, but generally, construction of erosion control structures is prohibited in all zones except zone 4, where new erosion control structures may be installed if a Natural Resources Special Permit is obtained. Additionally, the COD amendment authorizes limited emergency actions that are exempt from the Natural Resource Special Permit review process where immediate action is needed to prevent substantial damage to private property, authorizing (1) moving the threatened structure landward; (2) making structural repairs; (3) depositing sand in front of the structure; or (4) installing temporary geotextile or sandbag erosion control structures.